Breastfeeding e-Learning Series Glossary

BindingUsing specially designed clothing or bandages to flatten breast tissue.Association of Ontario Midwives (2012). Tip sheet: Providing care to transmen and trans masculine spectrum clients
Breastfeeding parentWithin this content, this term is used in place of mother to be inclusive of gender diversity. It indicates the parent whose body is required to breastfeed or express their milk.Adapted from AHS Proposed Informed Feeding Decision and Approach
Breastfeeding self-efficacyAn expectant or breastfeeding parents’ confidence in their ability to breastfeedDennis, C. (2010).
ChestfeedingA term used by many trans masculine and non-binary parents to describe how they feed and nurture their children from their bodies.La Leche League Canada (2018). Joint statement on the use of term chest feeding
CisgenderA person whose identity conforms to the cultural expectations of the sex assigned at birth.AHS LBGTQ* Terms
Contextual factorWithin the context of an Informed Feeding Decision, a contextual factor is a factor that may be perceived, valued, or experienced differently based on socio-ecological context. These factors and their importance may differ from one parent or caregiver to another or change over time.AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Continuum of careA concept involving a system that guides and tracks patients over time through a comprehensive array of health services spanning all levels and intensity of care.

The Continuum of Care covers the delivery of healthcare over a period of time.
Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (2019).
Cultural safetyGaining knowledge, recognizing, and respecting our differences. An environment that maintains personal dignity, an authentic relationship of trust, respect, compassion and collaboration where all people are feeling empowered and encouraged to fully express their identity and needs without the fear of attack, challenge or denial.AHS Diversity & Inclusion
Donor Human Milk (DHM)Breastmilk that is pasteurized and cultured to ensure safety after collection from a lactating person who has met rigid screening criteria that include a medical and lifestyle history, blood testing for HIV, HTLV I and II, hepatitis B & C, and syphilis. The milk is frozen for storage and transported as per HMBANA guidelines.AHS policy definition of Donor Human Milk (DHM)
Evidence-informed practice/Evidence-based practiceProblem-solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies and patient care data, and combines it with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values.Canadian Nurses Association (2019).
Exclusive breastfeedingOnly breastmilk is given until 6 months of age; no other liquids or solids are given with the exception of oral rehydration solution and liquid vitamins, minerals or medicines.World Health Organization (2019).
Expectant parentWithin this content, this term is used in place of mother in the antenatal period to be inclusive of gender diversity. It indicates the parent whose body is required to breastfeed or express their milk.Adapted from AHS Proposed Informed Feeding Decision & Approach
Feeding optionsWithin the context of an Informed Feeding Decision, feeding options include:
• Breastfeeding at the breast
• Breastmilk feeding: parent’s own milk or Donor Human Milk (DHM)
• Formula feeding
• Mixed feeding
• Other medically-prescribed options
There are also non-recommended feeding options that parents may require information about, such as shared breastmilk.
AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Gender dysphoriaDysphoria means feeling distressed or uneasy. Gender dysphoria is a feeling or emotional distress because your gender identity doesn’t match sex assigned at birth. Many, but not all transgender people have gender dysphoria. Symptoms can include being uncomfortable with or upset about body parts, anxiety/depression or feeling stressed.My Health Alberta (2017) Gender Dysphoria.
Health benefitWithin the context of an Informed Feeding Decision, a health benefit is a positive health outcome for the parent or child that is associated with the feeding option, as demonstrated in the scientific evidence.AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Health riskWithin the context of an Informed Feeding Decision, a health risk is a negative health outcome for the parent or child that is associated with the feeding option, as demonstrated in the scientific evidence. This association cannot be modified.AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Informed feeding decisionA decision that takes place when a parent/caregiver decides how to feed their child. An expectant or breastfeeding parent is enabled to make an informed feeding decision when:
• They have information about the feeding options, their health benefits, considerations, safety issues and health risks
• They have the opportunity to express relevant values, preferences and circumstances for themselves and their family
• The information provided is evidence-informed and objective, and is responsive and sensitive to the context of the expectant or breastfeeding parent and their infant/child
AHS Informed Feeding Decision & Approach
LGBTQ2S+Acronym for “lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, two-spirit”. Sometimes “*” or “+” is used at the end to represent the many diverse sexual orientations and gender identities that are part of this community.Alberta Health Services
Parent’s own milkBreastmilk coming from the infant or child’s parent; this includes antenatal colostrum (colostrum that is expressed and collected during pregnancy). AHS policy definition of breastmilk
Patient empowermentA process that helps people gain control over their own lives and increases their capacity to act on issues that they themselves define as importantEuropean Patients Forum (2018)
Patient and Family Centred CareCare provided working in partnership with patients and families by encouraging active participation of patients and families in all aspects of care, as integral members of the patient’s care and support team, and as partners in planning and improving facilities and services. Patient- and family-centred care applies to patients of all ages and to all areas of health care.Alberta Health Services
Reflective practiceA reflective practitioner is someone who consciously thinks about their experiences, making a link between theory and practice. Reflection requires us to confront our own personal beliefs, values and morals and how they impact our actions toward others. Through reflection, individuals can identify strengths and weaknesses both professionally and personally, thereby evaluating their own working practices.AHS Reflective Practice Case Management Toolkit
Risk languageThe term “risk language” refers to a method of breastfeeding promotion that aims to increase breastfeeding rates and de-normalize formula feeding by using language that positions formula as harmful. The AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach does not promote the use of risk language. Adapted from: Wallace, L. & Taylor, E. (2016). Running a Risk: Expectant Mothers Respond to “Risk” Language in Breastfeeding Promotion, Women's Reproductive Health, 3:1,16-29, DOI:10.1080/23293691.2016.1150133

AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Safety issueWithin the context of an Informed Feeding Decision, a safety issue is a modifiable factor that presents a hazard unless precautions are taken to mitigate the safety concern.AHS Informed Feeding Decisions Approach
Shared breastmilkInformal (peer to peer) shared breastmilk is donated/shared by a lactating person who has not been screened for HIV, HTLV (Human T-lymphotropic virus 1—a virus associated with pediatric leukemia and lymphoma), Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. The shared breastmilk has not been pasteurized or tested to determine whether it is safe and free of disease, drugs, bacteria and/or viruses. AHS policy definition of shared breastmilk
Socio-ecological modelA theory-based framework for understanding the multifaceted and interactive effects of personal and environmental factors that determine behaviors, and for identifying behavioral and organizational leverage points and intermediaries for health promotion within organizations.UNICEF (2009).
Strengths-based approachA strength-based approach is a manner of working with individuals, families, and organizations

grounded in the principle that individuals: have existing competencies; have resources; are capable of learning new skills and problem-solving; can use existing competencies to identify and address their own concerns; and can be involved in the process of healing and self-health.
The Duty MistakeThe idea that a parent has a defeasible duty to breastfeed their child. This mistaken idea states that:
• Parents are required to breastfeed unless you have a good excuse
• Failure to breastfeed without a good enough excuse leads to blame and guilt
• Parents are required to justify failure to breastfeed
Woollard F. You don’t have to: The Duty Mistake, the Justification Trap and perceived pressure to breastfeed. In: GOLD Lactation Online Conference
Top surgerySome transgender people choose to have chest-contouring surgery to create a male-appearing chest. Some but not all mammary tissue is removed. The complete removal of tissue would result in a sunken chest.La Leche League Canada (n.d.) Transgender/transsexual/gender fluid tip sheet
TransgenderA self-identifying term for people whose gender identity, gender expression or behavior differs from that typically associated with the sex assigned at birth.AHS LBGTQ* Terms
Trauma-informed careBeing trauma informed means to have a systematic approach which ensures that all people who come into contact with the health care system will receive services that are sensitive to the impact of trauma.AHS
Two-SpiritA cultural term used by some indigenous people to mean a person has both male and female spirit which may include concepts of spirituality, sexual orientation and gender identity.AHS LBGTQ* Terms